Improving the quality of water involves disinfection plus purification of untreated surface and ground water.
Community Level. A public/private water treatment facility aims to generate water safe to drink and pleasant to taste, while also being sure that there is enough water to deliver the demands of the community.
Raw, untreated water emanates from an underground aquifer (via wells) or surface lakes being a river or lake. It flows or possibly pumped to a treatment facility. As soon as it is there, water is treated beforehand to take away debris - like leaves and silt. Then it goes through a series of treatment processes, including disinfection and filtration using chemicals or physical processes, eliminating microorganisms that cause diseases. Once the treatment methods are completed, water flows out via a system of pumps and pipes, that is referred to as distribution system.
There's a slight difference water treatment process at various places, in line with the technology in the plant and water needed to be processed, but the fundamental principles are generally the same.
Coagulation / Flocculation. In the coagulation state, liquid aluminium sulfate or alum, and also at times polymer, is put in untreated/raw water. A combination causes tiny dirt particles in water to be fastened together or coagulated. Then, collections of dirt particles join together to make bigger, heavier particles Known as flocs - which can be easily removed through filtration/settling.
Sedimentation. When water and floc particles go through the treatment process, they flow into sedimentation basins where water moves slowly, letting heavy floc particles dip for the bottom. Floc collected around the lowermost area of the basin is recognized as sludge. Which i mentioned above through pipes to reach the drying lagoons. The sedimentation state is not contained in Direct Filtration and so, the floc is taken off through filtration.
Filtration. Water undergoes a filter designed to remove water particles. The filters contain layers of gravel and sand, as well as in other cases, crushed anthracite. Filtration gathers the suspended water impurities and improves the efficacy of disinfection. Filters are cleaned frequently by way of backwashing.
Disinfection. Before water retreats into the distribution system, it can be disinfected to make sure that bacteria that produces diseases, parasites and viruses is eliminated. Chlorine is employed since it an extremely sufficient in disinfecting and residual concentration to guard from possible biological contamination contained in the machine of water distribution.
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